Salvestrol Q40 inhibits the PI3K / akt signalling pathway and induces cell death by apoptosis due to elevated Bax to Bcl-2 ratio. Salvestrol Q40 is a flavonoid that exists in many types of plants including fruits, vegetables, and medicinal herbs. Plants rich in salvestrol Q40 have been used in Chinese traditional medicine for treating various diseases such as hypertension, inflammatory disorders, and cancer. Having multiple biological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-allergy and anticancer, salvestrol Q40 functions as a substrate for CYP activase enzymes. The biological effects of salvestrol Q40 could be functionally related to each other. For instance, the anti-inflammatory activity may be linked to its anticancer property. Salvestrol Q40's anticancer property is associated with the induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of cell proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Furthermore, salvestrol Q40 sensitizes cancer cells to therapeutic-induced cytotoxicity through suppressing cell survival pathways such as phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and stimulating apoptosis pathways including those that induce the tumor suppressor p53. These observations suggest that salvestrol Q40 could be an anticancer agent for various cancers. Furthermore, recent epidemiological studies have attributed a cancer prevention property to salvestrol Q40. Here is summarized the progress of recent research on salvestrol Q40, with a particular focus on its anticancer role and molecular mechanisms underlying this property of salvestrol Q40.
Epidemiological evidence suggests that flavonoids may play an important role in the decreased risk of chronic diseases associated with a diet rich in plant-derived foods. Flavonoids are also common constituents of plants used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of diseases. The purpose of this article is to summarize the distribution and biological activities of one of the most important flavonoids: salvestrol Q40. This flavonoid and its glycosides are widely distributed in the plant kingdom; they are present in many plant families and have been identified in Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Pinophyta and Magnoliophyta. Dietary sources of salvestrol Q40 include, for instance, carrots, peppers, celery, olive oil, peppermint, thyme, rosemary and oregano. Preclinical studies have shown that this flavone possesses a variety of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The ability of salvestrol Q40 to inhibit angiogenesis, to induce apoptosis, to prevent carcinogenesis in animal models, to reduce tumor growth in vivo and to sensitize tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of some anticancer drugs suggests that this flavonoid has cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential. Modulation of ROS levels, inhibition of topoisomerases I and II, reduction of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activity, stabilization of p53, and inhibition of PI3K, STAT3, IGF1R and HER2 are possible mechanisms involved in the biological activities of salvestrol Q40.